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Package 依赖

Dependencies are one of the core concepts of the pub package manager. A dependency is another package that your package needs in order to work. Dependencies are specified in your pubspec. You list only immediate dependencies — the software that your package uses directly. Pub handles transitive dependencies for you.

This page has detailed information on how to specify dependencies. At the end is a list of best practices for package dependencies.

Overview

For each dependency, you specify the name of the package you depend on and the range of versions of that package that you allow. You can also specify the source, which tells pub how to locate the package, and any additional description that the source needs to find the package.

Here is an example of specifying a dependency:

dependencies:
  transmogrify: ^1.0.0

This YAML code creates a dependency on the transmogrify package using the default source (pub.dev) and allowing any version from 1.0.0 to 2.0.0 (but not including 2.0.0). See the version constraints section of this page for syntax details.

If you want to specify a source, the syntax looks a bit different:

dependencies:
  transmogrify:
    hosted:
      name: transmogrify
      url: http://some-package-server.com
    version: ^1.0.0

This YAML code creates a dependency on the transmogrify package using the hosted source. Everything under the source key (here, just a map with a url: key) is the description that gets passed to the source. Each source has its own description format, which is described in the dependency sources section of this page. The version constraint is optional but recommended.

Use this long form when you don’t use the default source or when you have a complex description that you need to specify. But in most cases, you’ll just use the simple packagename: version form.

Dependency sources

Pub can use the following sources to locate packages:

SDK

The SDK source is used for any SDKs that are shipped along with packages, which may themselves be dependencies. Currently, Flutter is the only SDK that is supported.

The syntax looks like this:

dependencies:
  flutter_driver:
    sdk: flutter
    version: ^0.0.1

The identifier after sdk: indicates which SDK the package comes from. If it’s flutter, the dependency is satisfiable as long as:

  • Pub is running in the context of the flutter executable
  • The Flutter SDK contains a package with the given name
  • That package’s version matches the version constraint

If it’s an unknown identifier, the dependency is always considered unsatisfied.

A package with an sdk dependency must have a Dart SDK constraint with a minimum version of at least 1.19.0. This constraint ensures that older versions of pub won’t install packages that have sdk dependencies.

Hosted packages

A hosted package is one that can be downloaded from the pub.dev site (or another HTTP server that speaks the same API). Here’s an example of declaring a dependency on a hosted package:

dependencies:
  transmogrify: ^1.4.0

This example specifies that your package depends on a hosted package named transmogrify and will work with any version from 1.4.0 to 2.0.0 (but not 2.0.0 itself).

If you want to use your own package server, you can use a description that specifies its URL:

dependencies:
  transmogrify:
    hosted:
      name: transmogrify
      url: http://your-package-server.com
    version: ^1.4.0

Git packages

Sometimes you live on the bleeding edge and need to use packages that haven’t been formally released yet. Maybe your package itself is still in development and is using other packages that are being developed at the same time. To make that easier, you can depend directly on a package stored in a Git repository.

dependencies:
  kittens:
    git: https://github.com/munificent/kittens.git

The git here says this package is found using Git, and the URL after that is the Git URL that can be used to clone the package.

Even if the package repo is private, if you can connect to the repo using SSH, then you can depend on the package by using the repo’s SSH URL:

dependencies:
  kittens:
    git: [email protected]:munificent/kittens.git

If you want to depend on a specific commit, branch, or tag, add a ref argument:

dependencies:
  kittens:
    git:
      url: [email protected]:munificent/kittens.git
      ref: some-branch

The ref can be anything that Git allows to identify a commit.

Pub assumes that the package is in the root of the Git repository. To specify a different location in the repo, use the path argument:

dependencies:
  kittens:
    git:
      url: [email protected]:munificent/cats.git
      path: path/to/kittens

The path is relative to the Git repo’s root.

Path packages

Sometimes you find yourself working on multiple related packages at the same time. Maybe you are creating a framework while building an app that uses it. In those cases, during development you really want to depend on the live version of that package on your local file system. That way changes in one package are instantly picked up by the one that depends on it.

To handle that, pub supports path dependencies.

dependencies:
  transmogrify:
    path: /Users/me/transmogrify

This says the root directory for transmogrify is /Users/me/transmogrify. For this dependency, pub generates a symlink directly to the lib directory of the referenced package directory. Any changes you make to the dependent package are seen immediately. You don’t need to run pub every time you change the dependent package.

Relative paths are allowed and are considered relative to the directory containing your pubspec.

Path dependencies are useful for local development, but do not work when sharing code with the outside world—not everyone can get to your file system. Because of this, you cannot upload a package to the pub.dev site if it has any path dependencies in its pubspec.

Instead, the typical workflow is:

  1. Edit your pubspec locally to use a path dependency.
  2. Work on the main package and the package it depends on.
  3. Once they’re both working, publish the dependent package.
  4. Change your pubspec to point to the now hosted version of its dependent.
  5. Publish your main package too, if you want.

Version constraints

Specifying version constraints lets people using your package know which versions of its dependencies they can rely on to be compatible with your library. Your goal is to allow a range of versions as wide as possible to give your users flexibility. But it should be narrow enough to exclude versions that you know don’t work or haven’t been tested.

The Dart community uses semantic versioning1, which helps you know which versions should work. If you know that your package works fine with 1.2.3 of some dependency, then semantic versioning tells you that it should work with any subsequent stable release before 2.0.0. For details on pub’s version system, see the package versioning page.

You can express version constraints using either caret syntax (^1.2.3) or traditional syntax ('>=1.2.3 <2.0.0').

Caret syntax

Caret syntax is a compact way of expressing the most common sort of version constraint. ^version means the range of all versions guaranteed to be backwards compatible with the specified version.

For example, ^1.2.3 is equivalent to '>=1.2.3 <2.0.0', and ^0.1.2 is equivalent to '>=0.1.2 <0.2.0'. The following is an example of caret syntax:

dependencies:
  path: ^1.3.0
  collection: ^1.1.0
  string_scanner: ^0.1.2

Because caret syntax was introduced in Dart 1.8.3, it requires an SDK constraint (using traditional syntax) to ensure that older versions of pub don’t try to process it. For example:

environment:
  sdk: '>=1.8.3 <3.0.0'

Traditional syntax

A version constraint that uses traditional syntax is a series of the following:

any
The string any allows any version. This is equivalent to an empty version constraint, but is more explicit. Although any is allowed, we don’t recommend it.
1.2.3
A concrete version number pins the dependency to only allow that exact version. Avoid using this when you can because it can cause version lock for your users and make it hard for them to use your package along with other packages that also depend on it.
>=1.2.3
Allows the given version or any greater one. You’ll typically use this.
>1.2.3
Allows any version greater than the specified one but not that version itself.
<=1.2.3
Allows any version lower than or equal to the specified one. You won’t typically use this.
<1.2.3
Allows any version lower than the specified one but not that version itself. This is what you’ll usually use because it lets you specify the upper version that you know does not work with your package (because it’s the first version to introduce some breaking change).

You can specify version parts as you want, and their ranges are intersected together. For example, '>=1.2.3 <2.0.0' allows any version from 1.2.3 to 2.0.0 excluding 2.0.0 itself. An easier way to express this range is by using caret syntax, or ^1.2.3.

Dev dependencies

Pub supports two flavors of dependencies: regular dependencies and dev dependencies. Dev dependencies differ from regular dependencies in that dev dependencies of packages you depend on are ignored. Here’s an example:

Say the transmogrify package uses the test package in its tests and only in its tests. If someone just wants to use transmogrify—import its libraries—it doesn’t actually need test. In this case, it specifies test as a dev dependency. Its pubspec will have something like:

dev_dependencies:
  test: '>=0.5.0 <0.12.0'

Pub gets every package that your package depends on, and everything those packages depend on, transitively. It also gets your package’s dev dependencies, but it ignores the dev dependencies of any dependent packages. Pub only gets your package’s dev dependencies. So when your package depends on transmogrify it will get transmogrify but not test.

The rule for deciding between a regular or dev dependency is simple: If the dependency is imported from something in your lib or bin directories, it needs to be a regular dependency. If it’s only imported from test, example, etc. it can and should be a dev dependency.

Using dev dependencies makes dependency graphs smaller. That makes pub run faster, and makes it easier to find a set of package versions that satisfies all constraints.

Dependency overrides

You can use dependency_overrides to temporarily override all references to a dependency.

For example, perhaps you are updating a local copy of transmogrify, a published library package. Transmogrify is used by other packages in your dependency graph, but you don’t want to clone each package locally and change each pubspec to test your local copy of transmogrify.

In this situation, you can override the dependency using dependency_overrides to specify the directory holding the local copy of the package.

The pubspec would look something like the following:

name: my_app
dependencies:
  transmogrify: ^1.2.0
dependency_overrides:
  transmogrify:
    path: ../transmogrify_patch/

When you run pub get or pub upgrade, the pubspec’s lockfile is updated to reflect the new path to your dependency and, wherever transmogrify is used, pub uses the local version instead.

You can also use dependency_overrides to specify a particular version of a package:

name: my_app
dependencies:
  transmogrify: ^1.2.0
dependency_overrides:
  transmogrify: '3.2.1'

Best practices

It’s important to actively manage your dependencies and ensure that your packages use the freshest versions possible. If any dependency is stale, then you might have not only a stale version of that package, but also stale versions of other packages in your dependency graph that depend on that package. These stale versions can have a negative impact on the stability, performance, and quality of apps.

We recommend the following best practices for package dependencies:

Use caret syntax
Specifying dependencies with version ranges is such as ^1.6.3 is a good practice because it allows the pub tool to select newer versions of the package when they become available. Also, it places an upper limit on the allowed version, based on an assumption that packages use semantic versions, where any version of path versioned 1.x is compatible, but where a new version 2.x would be a major upgrade that isn’t semantically compatible with 1.x versions.
Depend on the latest stable package versions
Use pub upgrade to update to the latest package versions that your pubspec allows. To identify dependencies in your app or package that aren’t on the latest stable versions, use pub outdated.
Test whenever you update package dependencies
If you run pub upgrade without updating your pubspec, the API should stay the same and your code should run as before — but test to make sure. If you modify the pubspec and update to a new major version, then you might encounter breaking changes, so you need to test even more thoroughly.