此处涵盖了一些我们在迁移 Google 内部代码至 空安全 时遇到的常见问题。

This page collects some common questions we’ve heard about null safety based on the experience of migrating Google internal code.


What runtime changes should I be aware of for users of migrated code?


Most of the effects of migration do not immediately affect users of migrated code:

  • 静态的空安全检查,会在开发者完成迁移后立刻生效。

    Static null safety checks for users first apply when they migrate their code.

  • 完整的空安全检查,只会在所有代码都已迁移,并且启用了完整的空安全模式时生效。

    Full null safety checks happen when all the code is migrated and sound mode is turned on.


Two exceptions to be aware of are:

  • 对于任何模式而言,! 操作符都是在运行时进行的空检查。所以在进行迁移时,请确保您仅对 null 可能由混合模式造成污染的代码位置添加 !,就算发起调用的代码还未迁移至空安全,也应如此。

    The ! operator is a runtime null check in all modes, for all users. So, when migrating, ensure that you only add ! where it’s an error for a null to flow to that location, even if the calling code has not migrated yet.

  • late 会在运行时检查。所以请您仅在确定它被使用前一定会被初始化的情况下使用 late

    Runtime checks associated with the late keyword apply in all modes, for all users. Only mark a field late if you are sure it is always initialized before it is used.

如果在测试中的值始终为 null 应该怎样处理?

What if a value is only null in tests?

如果在测试中某个值始终为 null,可以通过将测试传值和测试需要的值改为非空,来改进您的测试。

If a value is only ever null in tests, the code can be improved by marking it non-nullable and making the tests pass non-null values.

新的 required@required 关键词有何异同?

How does @required compare to the new required keyword?

@required 注解会将参数标记为必须传递。如果未传,分析器会给出一个提示。

The @required annotation marks named arguments that must be passed; if not, the analyzer reports a hint.

有了空安全,非空类型的命名参数要么需要默认值,要么需要使用 required 关键字修饰。否则,它在未传递时默认会是 null,就显得不合理了。

With null safety, a named argument with a non-nullable type must either have a default or be marked with the new required keyword. Otherwise, it wouldn’t make sense for it to be non-nullable, because it would default to null when not passed.

在旧的代码中,required 关键词会被看作 @required 注解,即参数未传递时会显示一个分析器提示。

When null safe code is called from legacy code the required keyword is treated exactly like the @required annotation: failure to supply the argument will cause an analyzer hint.

当您在空安全的代码中使用空安全代码时,如果 required 修饰的参数未传递,会显示一个错误。

When null safe code is called from null safe code, failing to supply a required argument is an error.

那么它对于迁移来说意味着什么呢?当您给以前没有使用 @required 注解的参数加上 required 时要十分小心。任何没有传递新需要的参数的代码,都无法进行编译。实际上,您可以加上默认值,或是将参数变为可空类型。

What does this mean for migration? Be careful if adding required where there was no @required before. Any callers not passing the newly-required argument will no longer compile. Instead, you could add a default or make the argument type nullable.

我应该如何迁移应该为 final 而目前并不是的字段?

How should I migrate non-nullable fields that should be final, but aren’t?


Some computations can be moved to the static initializer. Instead of:

// Initalized without values
ListQueue _context;
Float32List _buffer;
dynamic _readObject;

Vec2D(Map<String, dynamic> object) {
  _buffer = Float32List.fromList([0.0, 0.0]);
  _readObject = object['container'];
  _context = ListQueue<dynamic>();


you can do:

// Initalized with values
final ListQueue _context = ListQueue<dynamic>();
final Float32List _buffer = Float32List.fromList([0.0, 0.0]);
final dynamic _readObject;

Vec2D(Map<String, dynamic> object) : _readObject = object['container'];

然而,在构造函数中通过计算进行初始化的字段,是无法为 final 的。在使用空安全的时候,您会发现想让它们的类型为非空,也不是一件容易的事。如果初始化的时机不合适,那么直到初始化前,它都只能是可空的类型。幸运的是,你还有其他选择:

However, if a field is initialized by doing computation in the constructor, then it can’t be final. With null safety, you’ll find this also makes it harder for it to be non-nullable; if it’s initialized too late, then it’s null until it’s initialized, and must be nullable. Fortunately, you have options:

  • 将构造转变为工厂方法,并将其委托给一个直接初始化所有字段的真正的构造函数。在 Dart 中,这样的私有构造通常是一个下划线:_。如此一来,字段就可以是 final 且非空了。在空安全迁移介入 之前,您就可以这样进行调整。

    Turn the constructor into a factory, then make it delegate to an actual constructor that initializes all the fields directly. A common name for such a private constructor is just an underscore: _. Then, the field can be final and non-nullable. This refactoring can be done before the migration to null safety.

  • 或者,将字段标记为 late final。这会使得字段只被初始化一次。在它被读取之前必须被初始化。

    Or, mark the field late final. This enforces that it’s initialized exactly once. It must be initialized before it can be read.

我应该如何迁移 built_value 类?

How should I migrate a built_value class?

使用了 @nullable 注解的 getter 应当直接转变为可空的类型,然后移除所有的 @nullable 注解。例如:

Getters that were annotated @nullable should instead have nullable types; then remove all @nullable annotations. For example:

int get count;



int? get count; //  Variable initialized with ?

就算迁移工具建议,没有 使用 @nullable 注解的 getter 也不应该是可空的类型。这时可以根据需要添加 ! 操作符,并且重新进行分析。

Getters that were not marked @nullable should not have nullable types, even if the migration tool suggests them. Add ! hints as needed then rerun the analysis.

我应该如何迁移可能返回 null 的工厂方法?

How should I migrate a factory that can return null?

优先使用不返回 null 的工厂方法。我们看到了很多代码,本意是想在调用不正确时抛出一个异常,但最终却返回了空。

Prefer factories that do not return null. We have seen code that meant to throw an exception due to invalid input but instead ended up returning null.


Instead of:

factory StreamReader(dynamic data) {
  StreamReader reader;
  if (data is ByteData) {
    reader = BlockReader(data);
  } else if (data is Map) {
    reader = JSONBlockReader(data);
  return reader;



factory StreamReader(dynamic data) {
  if (data is ByteData) {
    // Move the readIndex forward for the binary reader.
    return BlockReader(data);
  } else if (data is Map) {
    return JSONBlockReader(data);
  } else {
    throw ArgumentError('Unexpected type for data');

如果一个工厂方法的初衷就是可能返回空值,将其转为可返回 null 的静态方法是更好的选择。

If the intent of the factory was indeed to return null, then you can turn it into a static method so it is allowed to return null.

我应该如何迁移现在提示无用的 assert(x != null)

How should I migrate an assert(x != null) that now shows as unnecessary?

对于完全迁移的代码而言,这个断言是不必要的,但是如果您希望保留该检查,那么它 也需要 留下。几种方式可供您选择:

The assert will be unnecessary when everything is fully migrated, but for now it is needed if you actually want to keep the check. Options:

  • 确定是否真的需要这个断言,然后将其删除。当断言启用时,这是一种行为上的变更。

    Decide that the assert is not really necessary, and remove it. This is a change in behavior when asserts are enabled.

  • 确定断言始终会被检查,接着将其转换为 ArgumentError.checkNotNull。当断言未启用时,这是一种行为上的变更。

    Decide that the assert can be checked always, and turn it into ArgumentError.checkNotNull. This is a change in behavior when asserts are not enabled.

  • 通过添加 //ignore: unnecessary_null_comparison 来绕过警告并且保持原有的行为。

    Keep the behavior exactly as is: add // ignore: unnecessary_null_comparison to bypass the warning.


How should I migrate a runtime null check that now shows as unnecessary?

类似 if (arg == null) throw ArgumentError(...) 这样的显式空判断,会在 arg 为非空时标记为不必要。

An explicit runtime null check, for example if (arg == null) throw ArgumentError(...), will be flagged as an unnecessary comparison if you make arg non-nullable.

但是在混合模式下的程序 仍然需要 这样的判断。在所有代码都迁移且运行在完全的空安全模式下前,arg 仍然可能为空。

But, the check is still needed if the program is a mixed-version one. Until everything is fully migrated and the code switches to running with sound null safety, it will be possible for arg to be null.

保留这项行为的最简单的方法是将判断改为 ArgumentError.checkNotNull

The simplest way to preserve behavior is change the check into ArgumentError.checkNotNull.

运行时的检查同样适用。如果 arg 指定了静态类型为 String,那么 if (arg is! String) 实际上是在检查 arg 是否为 null。尽管代码在迁移到空安全后,arg 应该是永远不为 null 的,但是在不完全的空安全中它仍有可能为 null 的。

The same applies to some runtime type checks. If arg has static type String, then if (arg is! String) is actually checking whether arg is null. It might look like migrating to null safety means arg can never be null, but it could be null in unsound null safety. So, to preserve behavior, the null check should remain.

Iterable.firstWhere 方法不再接受 orElse: () => null

The Iterable.firstWhere method no longer accepts orElse: () => null.

导入 package:collection 包并使用 firstWhereOrNull 扩展方法代替 firstWhere

Import package:collection and use the extension method firstWhereOrNull instead of firstWhere.

我应该如何处理有 setters 的属性?

How do I deal with attributes that have setters?

与上文说到的 late final 的建议不同的是,这些字段不能被标记为终值。通常,可被修改的属性也没有初始值,因为它们可能会在稍后才被赋值。

Unlike the late final suggestion above, these attributes cannot be marked as final. Often, settable attributes also do not have initial values since they are expected to be set sometime later.


In such cases, you have two options:

  • 为其设置初始值。通常情况下,初始值未被设置是无意的错误,而不是有意为之。

    Set it to an initial value. Often times, the omission of an initial value is by mistake rather than deliberate.

  • 如果您 确定 这个属性需要在访问之前被赋值,将它标记为 late

    If you are sure that the attribute needs to be set before accessed, mark it as late.

    注意late 关键词会在运行时添加检查。如果在 set 之前调用了 get,会在运行时抛出异常。

    WARNING: The late keyword adds a runtime check. If any user calls get before set they’ll get an error at runtime.


How do I signal that the return value from a Map is non-nullable?

映射类型的 查询操作符 ([]) 返回的值默认是可空类型。此处没有办法告诉 Dart ,返回的值一定是非空的。

The lookup operator on Map ([]) by default returns a nullable type. There’s no way to signal to the language that the value is guaranteed to be there.

在这种情况下,您应该使用强制非空操作符 (!) 将可空的类型转为非空 (V)。

In this case, you should use the bang operator (!) to cast the value back to V:

return blockTypes[key]!;

如果 map 返回了 null,则会抛出异常。如果您希望手动处理这些情况:

Which will throw if the map returns null. If you want explicit handling for that case:

var result = blockTypes[key];
if (result != null) return result;
// Handle the null case here, e.g. throw with explanation.

为什么我的 List/Map 中的泛型是可空的?

Why is the generic type on my List/Map nullable?


It is typically a code smell to end up with nullable code like this:

List?<Foo?> fooList; // fooList can contain null values

它隐含了 fooList 可能包含空值的信息。在您以长度初始化列表并循环填入值时,这种情况可能会出现。

This implies fooList might contain null values. This might happen if you are initializing the list with length and filling it in via a loop.

如果您仅仅想要以相同的值初始化列表,您应该使用 filled 构造。

If you are simply initializing the list with the same value, you should instead use the filled constructor.

_jellyPoints = List<Vec2D>(jellyMax + 1);
for (var i = 0; i <= jellyMax; i++) {
  _jellyPoints[i] = Vec2D(); // List initalized with the same value
_jellyPoints = List<Vec2D>.filled(jellyMax + 1, Vec2D()); // List initialized with filled constructor

如果您需要通过索引来设置元素,您应该使用 add 函数来构建列表。这个方法不会轻易出错,且可读性更好。

If you are setting the elements of the list via an index, you should instead use the add function to build the list. That is less error-prone and more readable.

默认的 List 构造有什么改动?

What happened to the default List constructor?


You may encounter this error:

The default 'List' constructor isn't available when null safety is enabled. #default_list_constructor

默认的列表构造会将列表用 null 填充,会造成问题。

The default list constructor fills the list with null, which is a problem.

将它变为 List.filled(length, default) 即可。

Change it to List.filled(length, default) instead.

我在迁移使用了 package:ffi 的代码的时候遇到了 Dart_CObject_kUnsupported 的错误。发生了什么?

I’m using package:ffi and get a failure with Dart_CObject_kUnsupported when I migrate. What happened?

通过 ffi 发送的列表只能是 List<dynamic>,而不能是 List<Object>List<Object?>。就算您未在迁移过程中手动更改类型,类型也可能会被改变,因为启用空安全后,类型推导推算出了这样的结果。

Lists sent via ffi can only be List<dynamic>, not List<Object> or List<Object?>. If you didn’t change a list type explicitly in your migration, a type might still have changed because of changes to type inference that happen when you enable null safety.

手动创建 List<dynamic> 类型的列表可以解决这个问题。

The fix is to explicitly create such lists as List<dynamic>.


Why does the migration tool add comments to my code?

空安全模式下,在当某个表达式的结果一定为 false 或 true 的时候,迁移工具会自动添加 /* == false */ 或者 /* == true */ 这样的评论。这样的评论将会导致自动迁移出现错误,并且需要人工干预。例如:

The migration tool adds /* == false */ or /* == true */ comments when it sees conditions that will always be false or true while running in sound mode. Comments like these might indicate that the automatic migration is incorrect and needs human intervention. For example:

if (registry.viewFactory(viewDescriptor.id) == null /* == false */)

在这些情况下,迁移工具无法区分防御性编码情况或是确实需要空值的情况。那么该工具会告诉您「这看起来永远为 false!」并让您进行决定。

In these cases, the migration tool can’t distinguish defensive-coding situations and situations where a null value is really expected. So the tool tells you what it knows (“it looks like this condition will always be false!”) and lets you decide what to do.